Analysis of kinematics characteristics of Sheng Jiang Zhuang in Tai Ji Quan to the Shoulder-Chest Angle
Keywords:Tai Ji Quan, Sheng Jiang Zhuang, Shoulder-Chest angle, Sports biomechanics
Objective: Tai Ji Quan is the essence of Chinese martial arts. It is a slow fitness sport established and developed by integrating the whole view of human life, the harmony and unity of human, society and environment, and by integrating guidance, breathing and breathing and boxing skills. Known as "Wu Ji Zhuang" is the basis of Tai Ji Quan in the basic skills practice, it is to use static standing posture, make human body in the static nature of the state, pay attention to use consciousness introversion, through adjustable body, such as pranayama and self-aligning way, to achieve correct posture, coordinate the relationship between body and mind of a static work practice. There is also a kind of dynamic exercise method "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" in the exercise of Tai Ji Quan, which is based on the "Wu Ji Zhuang" and carries out a variety of comprehensive exercises according to the basic laws of Tai Ji Quan rising, falling, opening, closing, coming out and entering. It can cultivate the overall exercise ability of "meaning", "Qi", "shape" in the process of movement, Master the basic rules and skills of arc movement, smooth the two channels of supervision and regulate the Qi and blood of the twelve classics. However, many practitioners in the practice process, due to lack of awareness, unclear movements, too large or too small, lead to the lack of standardization of movements, exercise effect is not very ideal. This paper analyzes the difference of shoulder chest angle between groups and before and after the exercise by means of experimental method and statistical data. Combined with the characteristics and basic rules of Tai Ji Quan project, the kinematics characteristics of shoulder chest angle during the process of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" drill are studied. It provides some reference for practitioners to find their own deficiencies and improve them in the process of practice, and to provide some scientific theoretical guidance for practitioners to practice Tai Ji quan, and also contribute some strength to the promotion of Tai Ji Quan stake skill.
Methods: In this paper, the Motion Analysis Raptor-4 infrared high-speed Motion capture system was used to test three professional athletes and three ordinary practitioners of Tai Ji Quan. First experiment in Beijing sport university were tested in the laboratory, collect information of the subjects, subjects were asked to watch an online video of Professor Xu Weijun, 15 minutes free practice in accordance with the requirements, and then start testing "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" a complete set of movements, participants were asked in recorded pace nonstop for three consecutive complete movement exercises. After that, the subjects were explained the action specifications of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" and given a online video of Professor Xu Weijun. The subjects were required to conduct systematic exercises according to the action requirements for four weeks under the supervision of the coach and myself. Around the end of the experiments conducted on the subjects in the same spot test. The subjects were first tested on three routine movements in the "Sheng Jiang Zhuang", respectively is the "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" the preparation of type, hands with chest high, full squat down, and then let the participants out of the test sites take a minute to adjust status to "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" action of a complete set of tests, subjects were asked to perform three complete motion drills in a recorded rhythm without interruption. After statistics and analysis of group differences and Shoulder-Chest Angle data before and after the practice, and combining with the characteristics of Tai Ji Quan project movement and the basic rule, the kinematics characteristics of Shoulder-Chest Angle during "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" exercise after systematic training were studied.
Results: (1) Picture division of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" features: according to the main action characteristics of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang", it can be divided into preparation type (Wu Ji Zhuang), arm lifting stage (hand and chest level), arm dropping stage (Wu Ji Zhuang), leg dropping and arm lifting stage (full squatting), leg lifting and aim dropping stage (Wu Ji Zhuang). The arm lifting period is a movement process in which the legs are basically immobile, the arms are lifted up and out from the abdomen to the same height as the chest, and the arms keep ring and the armpit keep empty; The descending period of arms is the movement process of keeping the legs still, the two arms slowly downward, inward in front of the abdomen, and the two arms keep ring and the armpit keep empty; The leg lowering arm rising period is the movement process of legs bending knee slowly and fully squatting, while the two arms are separated slowly and keep ring and empty under the armpit; The leg lift arm descending period is the movement process of legs squatting and slowly standing up, while the two arms slowly close in front of the abdomen and keep the ring and the armpit empty. (2) The statistical data and characteristics of the angle of shoulder chest included in the fixed state: the maximum value of the angle between shoulder and chest in six subjects was 165. 92 °, the minimum value was 111. 05 °, and none of them exceeded 180 °. (3) The results of variance analysis of Shoulder-Chest Angle in the feature picture of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" showed that there was significant difference in the joint angle between different levels of practitioners before exercise, F = 91. 885, P = 0. 078; There was no significant difference after the exercise, F = 0. 635, P = 0. 722. This difference is caused by the difference of kinematic indexes, so the variance analysis of repeated measurement is carried out. The results of repeated variance analysis showed that there was significant difference in Shoulder-Chest Angle between the subjects before and after the exercise, F = 26. 414, P = 0. 007. From the perspective of interaction, F = 46. 323 and P = 0. 002 of the angle between shoulder and chest were observed. (4) The resul ts of the analysis of the movement track of Shoulder-Chest Angle: the subjects' Shoulder-Chest Angle movement track has certain regularity, and there are two wave peaks. The Shoulder-Chest Angle has a very obvious process from small to large, then to small, then to large, and finally smaller, the maximum value of peak value can be seen not reaching 180 °. It is obvious that the angle curve of shoulder chest of Lu classmate has a clear inverted "mountain" type when the wave peak appears. The first time the inverted "mountain" type occurs at the end of the two arm lifting period of " Sheng Jiang Zhuang " (hand and chest level), and the second inverted "mountain" type occurs at the end of leg descending and rising period (squatting completely), and the second time is more obvious than the first inverted "mountain" type.
Conclusion: (1) Picture division of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang" features: according to the main action characteristics of "Sheng Jiang Zhuang", it can be divided into preparation type (Wu Ji Zhuang), arm lifting stage (hand and chest level), arm dropping stage (Wu Ji Zhuang), leg dropping and arm lifting stage (full squatting), leg lifting and aim dropping stage (Wu Ji Zhuang). (2) According to the characteristic results of the fixed state of Shoulder-Chest Angle, the six subjects’ Shoulder-Chest Angle was not more than 180 °, which verified the movement characteristics of Tai Ji Quan "including chest pulling back". The angle value was different, indicated Shoulder-Chest Angle was not always unchanged, which followed the characteristics of the "opening and closing" of the two arms and the breathing and breathing of Tai Ji Quan. The separation of the two arms and the inspiratory movement make the thorax expand, that is, the chest range decreases, and the closing of the two arms and the expiratory movement make the thorax narrow, that is, the chest range increases. (3) From the analysis of variance, there was marginal and significant difference in the Shoulder-Chest Angle between different levels of subjects before exercise, but no significant difference after the exercise. In terms of interaction, the straight lines of the average practitioner but the straight lines of the elite athlete are gentle. It shows that the level of ordinary practitioners is slowly approaching to the high level athletes. (4) From the perspective of the trajectory of the Shoulder-Chest Angle: the trajectory of the Shoulder-Chest Angle changes regularly, and the difference between the comparison intervals reflects the exercisers' ability to control the stability of the joint. The appearance of the pour word "mountain" in the Shoulder-Chest Angle of Lv is a reflection of "energy retention" and "breathing deepening".
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Copyright (c) 2021 Long Yu, Zihui Shan, Dong Zhao
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